WordPress: Prevent access to wp-login.php when the wp-admin directory has already been protected

The problem: You’ve used .htaccess / .htpasswd to restrict access to the wp-admin directory of your WordPress installation. However, when someone accesses wp-login.php, they can simply click “cancel” or press the escape key in the authentication dialog to reach the WordPress login page:

Click on “Cancel” here…
…and you still reach the WordPress login page (doesn’t look great, but works).

The solution

You also have to explicitly protect the wp-login.php file. Open the .htaccess file in the root directory (not in the wp-admin directory) and add something like this1:

AuthType Basic
AuthUserFile "path/to/.htpasswd"
require valid-user

You’ll have to replace path/to/.htpasswd with the path to your .htpasswd file (which should exist if you’ve already restricted access to your wp-admin directory).

Now, if someone cancels the authentication dialog, they’ll be directed to the default “Error 401” page:

Detailed information on authentication on Apache servers can be found in the official documentation. While there are lots of terrible articles out there which only regurgitate incomplete information for SEO purposes, I did find a comprehensive tutorial on how to protect wp-login.php and the wp-admin directory here.

Note: You may still want to install a WordPress security plugin like Cerber. This is how I discovered that I had forgotten to protect wp-login.php on one of my websites.


1 Wondering why I didn’t include the AuthName directive? The text is not shown in Chromium-based browsers.

Excel: How to calculate time differences beyond midnight

Suppose you have a document with a date and time column. Calculating time differences is easy, you can simply subtract an earlier time from a later one1. In the screenshot below, column C shows the difference between the time in consecutive rows (column B). However, you can see that this simple approach fails just after midnight:

Excel: Simple time difference calculation fails at midnight

The time difference in row 4 is negative and also wrong. This becomes very clear when you switch to a 24h time format and enable negative times2:

Excel: Time difference calculation fails at midnight
Did you notice that the dates in column A have changed? This was due to the method I used to enable negative time values (see note 2 below).

Solution: Include the date in the calculation

Internally, dates are represented as whole numbers and times as fractional numbers smaller than 1 (1 would be 24h = 1 whole day). This means you can simply add date and time! Therefore, a better formula to calculate time differences is:

=A2+B2-(A1+B1)

By including the date, this formula works fine after midnight.

What if you don’t have a date column?

You can use a clever approach I found here:

Columns C and D included for explanatory purposes
=A3-A2+(A3<A2)

A3-A2 is the simple time difference calculation we used in the beginning. (A3<A2) returns TRUE only when the next day starts and the time is “smaller” than in the row above (see row 5, column C). What makes this work for our purposes it that TRUE is evaluated as 1 while FALSE is 0 (see column D). As mentioned above, a date/time value of 1 corresponds to 1 day (24h).

In row 5, Excel is therefore calculating the difference between 24h and 23h 59min 59s, which is 1 second.


1 This will work if Excel correctly recognized the value as a time (not a text). You can test this with the ISNUMBER function which should return TRUE.
2 The easiest way to get Excel to show negative times is by enabling the 1904 date system in the advanced options.
3 If you want to see time values of 24h or more, use an elapsed time format with square brackets, e.g. [h]:mm:ss instead of h:mm:ss.

Testing malware scanning tools with a hacked website

Some restaurant websites in Luxembourg are poorly designed and make it difficult to find important information (such as the opening hours, the address or perhaps a menu that has been updated in this decade). What happened yesterday was even more confusing: I was immediately redirected to a suspicious page that claimed to conduct a survey.

This is not a restaurant

This is a so-called malicious redirect. The goal is usually to generate ad revenue for the hacker or to try to install malware on the vistor’s computer. I took this opportunity to test several tools which claim to be able to scan websites for vulnerabilities and malware. You’ll find the results below. Of course, I also notified the restaurant.

Notes:

  • I didn’t hack the website.
  • It’s not my website, which means I couldn’t test any popular tools which have to execute code on the server (e.g. MalCare, WordFence, WP Cerber Security). These tools may be more powerful although a malicious redirect should also be detected by external scans.
  • This is obviously not a comprehensive test. I’m also not a security expert.

Google Safe Browsing

There’s nothing wrong with the website according to Google. However, the report was last updated on March 29, 2019 and it’s likely the website was fine then.

Hackercombat

Hackercombat Website screenshot

Hackercombat asks for a name, business email and phone number before sending you the result of the security scan. The email I received confirmed that the “website has been affected by malware” and offered a link to a page with general information and a “100% free” malware cleanup service.

Quttera

Quttera‘s results were inconsistent. The website was first rated as clean. Shortly afterwards, it was classified as suspicious in a second scan:

Quttera screenshot clean
Quttera screenshot suspicious

The detailed report did not clearly identify the issue as a malicious redirect.

ReScan.pro

ReScan.pro report screenshot

ReScan.pro consistently identified the malicious redirect and made it very clear that the website has critical issues.

SiteGuarding

Siteguarding report

All that SiteGuarding’s malware scanner tells us is that the website was already blacklisted by Yandex Safebrowsing. Note: This scan and the second Sucuri scan were executed several hours after the other scans.

Sucuri

At first, Sucuri‘s external scan failed to detect the malicious redirect and claimed that no malware was found. It did complain about HTTPS mixed content which may have been a consequence of the redirect:

Sucuri Scan results morning

When re-testing the website several hours later, the report looked quite different:

To make matters more confusing, it seems that the restaurant’s webmaster was already working on fixing the issue at this time (you can see in the second report that the CMS was now listed as “unknown”).

Web Inspector

app.webinspector.com screenshot

I gave up on Web Inspector as it was still “waiting [for] a free detection server” more than 8 hours after I first submitted the URL.

Conclusion

The results are not entirely satisfying. While I didn’t expect an external scan to be able to tell me how the malicious redirect was implemented, it seems that most of the tools had difficulties detecting the redirect at all. Only ReScan.pro managed to quickly and consistently identify the issue while also giving me immediate access to the report.

To put it in another way, when I notified the restaurant, the only report I could include to show that this was indeed a problem on their side was the one provided by ReScan.pro. Quttera and Sucuri did not show (clear) warnings at the time, Hackercombat did not give me immediate access to their report and Web Inspector was useless.

Thoughts on Form W-8BEN-E for companies selling software licenses

Your company is selling software and a customer in the U.S. is asking you for form W-8BEN-E? You should supply it or risk having 30% of your payment withheld. Some customers might also not place an order at all before receiving this form.

Disclaimer: This blog post is presented for educational and entertainment purposes only. I originally wrote the instructions below for my own company. They might be incomplete, wrong or not applicable to your situation.

Preliminary considerations

  • What are software licenses (in tax treaty terms)? For this article, I’m assuming they fall under royalties / copyright.
  • Does your country have a tax treaty with the U.S.? How much will you save by filling out from W-8BEN-E? Download table 1 (tax rates…) from this IRS page, find your country and look up the royalties / copyright tax rate:

    Luxembourg US tax treaty: royalties
    Points at Malta: Ha-ha!

Official information

Other links you might find useful

Instructions for filling out form W-8BEN-E

Part I – Identification of Beneficial Owner

Complete line 1 and 2

Check “Corporation” on line 4 (if you’re not working for a corporation, you’re probably reading the wrong blog post).

Skip line 5 (FATCA status) entirely. Software licenses are excluded from the FATCA definition of “withholdable payment” [see: Experis – Finance FATCA Checklist for Multinational Companies (PDF); EY – Information reporting and withholding: the impact of Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) on multinational organizations (PDF)].

Enter address on line 6.

Provide a US taxpayer identification number (TIN) in the form of an employer identification number (EIN) on line 8 or the tax ID assigned in your country on line 9b.

Part III – Claim of Tax Treaty Benefits

Line 14a: Check the box and enter your country.

Line 14b: Check the box at the beginning. Will you have to check another box below? The official instructions say:

If you are a resident of a foreign country that has entered into an income tax treaty with the United States that contains a limitation on benefits (LOB) article, you must complete one of the checkboxes in line 14b. You may only check a box if the limitation on benefits article in that treaty includes a provision that corresponds to the checkbox on which you are relying to claim treaty benefits. A particular treaty might not include every type of test for which a checkbox is provided.

To find out if your country’s tax treaty includes a LOB article (it most probably does), go to the IRS tax treaties tables page and look up your country in table 4 (limitation on benefits). You can find the complete text of the tax treaty through this page and read the articles mentioned in table 4. The official instructions for form W-8BEN-E also contain summarized versions of the LOB tests which might be useful. You should then be able to figure out which box to check.

Line 15: As far as I understood the instructions, this line has to be filled out only “if the treaty contains different withholding rates for different types of royalties.”[see IRS instructions]. Remember table 1 from the very beginning of this blog post? Look at it again. Are all royalties rates the same? If yes, skip line 15, otherwise, fill it in. As “n/a” is not a rate (I hope), I skipped this line (all rates were the same for Luxembourg).

Part XXX – Certification

Sign, fill in print name and date in U.S. format, check the box at the bottom.

Even though I really don’t want to deal with this topic again, I’ll leave the comments open so that you can correct me on all that’s wrong with my instructions. However, please don’t ask me to help you fill out form W-8BEN-E for your company!

Solution: The target version of the .NET Framework in the project does not match the .NET Framework launch condition version

The problem:

You’re building a setup project in Visual Studio (aka deployment project or installer project) and find the following warning in the build output:

The target version of the .NET framework in the project does not match the NET framework launch condition version...
The target version of the .NET framework in the project does not match the NET framework launch condition version…

Why this is happening:

The project you want to deploy (using the setup project) targets a more recent .NET Framework than specified in the setup project’s launch conditions.

In my case, the project targets .NET Framework 4.7:

application target .NET framework
Double click on ‘Properties’ in the Solution Explorer to show this screen.

Meanwhile, the setup project was still checking for .NET Framework 4.6.1 as a launch condition (requirement on the target machine).

I had previously thought that this was due to

The solution: Update the launch condition version to match the target framework of your project.

In the Setup Project, double click on ‘Microsoft .NET Framework’ to show its properties. Then change the .NET Framework version in the dropdown list:

launch condition .net framework version

One more thing: Check the prerequisites

While this has nothing to do with the warning, you might as well check which version of the .NET framework your setup program will install (if any).

Right click on the setup project and select ‘Properties’. In the Property Pages dialog, click on ‘Prerequisites…’:

setup program prerequisites

 

Update: While I thought this issue only appears when you update you project’s target framework after having already created a setup project, it seems that it also happens when creating a new setup project. Also, changing the target framework version does not seem to update the InstallUrl (not sure if this is important).